The Eastern Indigo Snake. Photo: Pete Oxford

Eastern Indigo Snakes are one of the largest snakes in North America, reaching a maximum total length of 2.6 meters (8.58 feet). Most records of wild specimens measuring 2.4 m. (7.83 ft.) or longer have been from southern Florida. The species is fairly stout-bodied and sexually dimorphic in size, with males attaining greater lengths than females. Large males are typically 2.0 to 2.3 m. (6.67 to 7.5 ft.) and weigh 3.2 to 4.5 kilograms (7 to 10 pounds), while large females seldom exceed 2 m. (6.5 ft.) and weigh 1.8 to 2.7 kg. (4 to 6 lbs.).

Eastern Indigo Snakes are a uniform bluish or gunmetal black, both dorsally and ventrally. A wash of orange-red is often present on the chin, sides of the head and throat. There is variation in this trait, with some populations in northern Florida having black lip scales, a white patch in the center of the throat and lacking orange-red. The orange-red pigment is more prominent in male Eastern Indigos and may extend onto the belly of some south Florida snakes.

The common name for Eastern Indigo Snakes relates to the large, smooth scales of this species which appear iridescent purple in sunlight. Adult males have partial keels on the scales along the middle of the back. Hatchling Eastern Indigos may possess a faint pattern of cream speckling forming indistinct lateral bands.

The taxon was described by James Edward Holbrook in 1842 and named in honor of J. H. Couper who brought him the first specimen from south of the Altamaha River in Wayne County, Georgia. Historically, Drymarchon corais was considered a monotypic species with eight to 12 subspecies including D. c. couperi. In the early 1990s, the Eastern Indigo Snake, Drymarchon corais couperi, was elevated to a full species (i.e., Drymarchon couperi), and most herpetologists have adopted this suggestion including the Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles. Populations of Eastern Indigo Snakes are isolated from their nearest relative, the Texas Indigo Snake (Drymarchon melanurus erebennus), by approximately 1,000 kilometers (620 miles).

The Latin name for the genus Drymarchon roughly translates to “forest ruler” from the Greek words drymos, meaning forest, and archon, meaning ruler. Eastern Indigo Snakes have a number of common names: Indigo, Blue Indigo Snake, Black Snake, Gopher Snake, Blue Gopher Snake and Blue Bull Snake.

The Eastern Indigo Snake is a member of a species complex which is primarily tropical in distribution. Its ranging into temperate North America depends on the presence of deep animal burrows (e.g., Gopher Tortoise burrows) to survive cold winter temperatures. Eastern Indigo Snakes occur throughout most of Florida and much of the Coastal Plain of southern Georgia. The historic range included southeastern Mississippi, southernmost Alabama and possibly southeastern South Carolina. However, Eastern Indigo populations no longer inhabit these states.

The current strongholds for the species are peninsular Florida and southeastern Georgia. Eastern Indigo Snakes are rare and of very local occurrence in the Florida panhandle (west of Tallahassee) and in southwestern Georgia.

Throughout its range, the Eastern Indigo Snake can be found in a wide variety of habitats depending on the region in which it is found. In peninsular Florida, the species occurs in diverse habitat types including sandhills, oak scrub, sand pine scrub, mangrove swamps, wet prairies, cabbage palm-live oak hammocks and pine flatwoods. Some Eastern Indigo populations in south Florida inhabit vegetated, rock-strewn canal banks surrounded by sugarcane fields or citrus groves.

In the northern parts of the range (i.e., southern Georgia and northern Florida, including the Panhandle region) Eastern Indigo Snakes rely on Gopher Tortoise (Gopherus polyphemus) burrows for cool-season dens, and are restricted to sandy, Longleaf Pine habitats. In this region, Gopher Tortoise burrows play a central role in the ecology of these snakes, particularly during ecdysis (shedding of their skins). The presence of Gopher Tortoise populations and large numbers of tortoise burrows will be a necessity for repatriation sites at northern latitudes. Additional types of refugia used throughout the year include stump holes, armadillo burrows, small mammal burrows, hollow logs, root channels, limestone solution holes, and in south Florida, land crab burrows.

In the Coastal Plain of Georgia, Eastern Indigo Snakes favor habitats underlain by wind-blown deposits of sand 3 to 9 meters (10 to 30 feet) deep which are located along the northeastern sides of major blackwater streams (e.g., the Alapaha, Altamaha, Canoochee, Ohoopee and Satilla Rivers). These extensive, xeric sand ridges may be 8 kilometers (5 miles) long and support barren environments vegetated with stunted turkey oaks and a patchy ground cover of saw palmetto, rosemary, mints and reindeer lichens. These sandhill areas are used by Eastern Indigos during the cooler months, while lowland habitats are important as foraging sites during the rest of the year. Wildlife corridors are important in linking these seasonally-used habitats.

Site fidelity, that is a “homing instinct” or tendency to return to the same tortoise colonies and burrows year after year, has been documented for adult Eastern Indigo Snakes at numerous sites in Georgia. This behavior emphasizes the importance of long-term burrow viability. In the cooler months, Eastern Indigos bask in the vicinity of those Gopher Tortoise burrows that they use as retreats. Basking often occurs at temperatures of 15 to 22°C (60 to 72°F) and at temperatures as low as 7°C (45°F).

Eastern Indigo Snakes have one of the largest home ranges of any North American snake species. Home range size appears to fluctuate between South Georgia and north Florida and more southerly sites in central and south Florida, with snakes in southern Florida having smaller home ranges than those of their northern counterparts. In Georgia, females have been found to have a home range of around 100 hectares (247.11 acres), and males around 500 ha. (1,200 ac.). In north Florida, female home ranges vary between 20 and 280 ha. (55 to 700 ac.) while males have home ranges of approximately 185 ha. (460 ac.).

Home range size and movement may be influenced by Eastern Indigo Snake population densities, mating opportunities, prey abundance, and the distance traveled between winter refugia and seasonal foraging areas. Individual linear movements can also be significant. One Georgia specimen made a long-distance, interpopulation movement of 22 kilometers (14 miles).

Eastern Indigo Snakes are most vagile during the warmer months of the year (April to October). During this time they move often and visit numerous habitats, especially low, shaded forests and wetlands where snake, frog and rodent prey are abundant. Eastern Indigos are inactive for roughly two weeks when undergoing ecdysis. During this time they are often found in Gopher Tortoise burrows or similar retreats.

Eastern Indigo Snakes are indiscriminate carnivores known to feed on virtually any vertebrate they can overpower. They are robust predators that overpower their prey by using strong jaws while pinning their prey items to the ground with a body coil. When feeding on snakes, they chew until the snake is immobilized and then swallow the snake head first. Eastern Indigos often consume rattlesnakes and cottonmouths and can do so because they have a high degree of immunity to the venom of these species and suffer no lasting injury if they are bitten by them.

Eastern Indigo Snakes are known to feed on fish, frogs, toads, small alligators, hatchling aquatic turtles, hatchling and juvenile Gopher Tortoises, lizards, other snakes, birds and their eggs, and small mammals. An adult Eastern Indigo found in southern Georgia regurgitated a Pigmy Rattlesnake (Sistrurus miliarius), a hatchling Gopher Tortoise, a Southern Hognose Snake (Heterodon simus) and a Southern Toad (Bufo terrestris). Eastern Indigos are sometimes cannibalistic, but observations documenting this for wild snakes are rare.

Eastern Indigo Snakes have been characterized as a “late-maturing colubrid snake.” These traits include high adult survivorship, high longevity, low to medium fecundity, small annual clutches, low juvenile survivorship, male-biased sexual size dimorphism, high ratio of mature to immature individuals in the population, and a significant proportion of the population that is older than four years old.

Sexual maturity in Eastern Indigos is reached in three to five years of age at a total length of 1.5 to 1.8 meters (5 to 6 feet). Male Eastern Indigos are estimated to reach sexual maturity in two to three years and females in three to four years. In southeast Georgia, it is likely that males and females first breed when three to four years old. A male-biased sex ratio of 2:1 male to female appears to be the norm in Georgia and Florida. This may be the result of higher energetic costs associated with reproduction, higher predation rates and/or higher overwinter mortality in females.

Eastern Indigo Snakes are active in the winter, emerging from refugia during suitable temperatures to bask and breed. With the advent of cooling temperatures and shortening day lengths in autumn, adult Eastern Indigos concentrate on sand ridges and other upland habitats to breed. Competition among males for mates may be intense, resulting in male-male combat rituals. This involves the males intertwining as they wrestle and fight, sometimes biting each other on the neck and inflicting deep gashes. The height of the mating season is November through January, but breeding can occur from October through March.

Females lay a single clutch of four to 14 large eggs between April and June, usually in an open-canopied sandy microhabitat. Eggs measure approximately 7.6 centimeters (3 inches) in total length. The eggs are soft-shelled, oval and granular-surfaced. Females have the ability to retain live sperm for prolonged periods, possibly over four years, for later release and egg fertilization. Reports of nest sites are rare, but those located in the field have been associated with Gopher Tortoise burrows including abandoned burrows. Eggs hatch in August to September, and neonates measure 40.6 to 61 cm. (1.33 to 2 ft.) upon hatching.

The scientific name of the Eastern Indigo Snake, Drymarchon couperi, roughly translates to “Emperor of the Forest.” As one of the largest snakes in North America, this majestic nonvenomous animal truly lives up to its name. Despite its docile nature when handled by humans, the Eastern Indigo Snake is a top predator and an icon for conservation.

The Eastern Indigo Snake is a wide-ranging top predator that, pound for pound, can require as much room to roam as an African Lion. It also requires different overwintering and summer foraging habitat that can be separated by considerable distance, resulting in a great deal of travel. And travel means crossing roads.

Habitat loss and fragmentation are the most significant causes of Eastern Indigo Snake decline. The species requires large expanses of natural habitat for both overwintering and foraging. Due to the prevalence of private land and small parcel sizes, the southeastern Coastal Plain is a patchwork of different land uses with little continuity across the landscape. Specifically, urban and rural development, agriculture, roads, altered fire regimes, forestry and conversion to pine plantations have fragmented habitats resulting in negative impacts to Eastern Indigo Snakes.

In addition, the Eastern Indigo Snake is directly linked to another vulnerable species—the Gopher Tortoise. In the northern portion of its range, the Eastern Indigo Snake is dependent on Gopher Tortoise burrows for shelter in the winter. As suitable Gopher Tortoise habitat has declined, so have the tortoise populations and with it the Eastern Indigo Snake. 

RELATED INFORMATION

Altamaha River Corridor

The Altamaha River Corridor has extensive sandhills and tracts of Longleaf Pine and includes the Orianne Indigo Snake Preserve.

Spotted Turtle

Complementing our efforts to protect the Gopher Tortoise, we are directing our efforts toward the conservation of this small, mostly-aquatic species.

Gopher Tortoise

Many species including the Eastern Indigo Snake and Eastern Diamondback Rattlesnake rely on Gopher Tortoise burrows for den and nesting sites.